Stress and fatigue in diving

Human behavior is influenced by several factors defined as “stressors.” These can originate from the individual’s psychophysical state and the external environment. In diving, it is crucial to understand how to react to stress in a controlled way to ensure safety and efficiency. Impact of fatigue on divers A state of extreme fatigue has several […]

Murky Waters

Visibility underwater can be deteriorated by several factors including, run-off water after heavy rain, sediments stirred up by waves or currents, planktonic blooms. Moreover, it is often the action of the divers that can disturb the sediments, compromising the visibility. It is therefore important to correctly assess the risks connected to diving in reduced or […]

Diving in Winter

With the onset of the winter season, the sea begins to lose the heat stored during the summer, becoming progressively colder. In this article, we will see what happens to our bodies and diving equipment when the temperature is low and how we can best prepare ourselves to dive safely in cold waters. Heat production […]

CO2 and the diver

Our body produces CO2, as a consequence of cellular metabolism, in stoichiometric equilibrium with the oxygen used (i.e., for every molecule of oxygen consumed, one molecule of CO2 is generated); it results that the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in arterial blood is about 40 mmHg while that in venous blood, where the products of […]

The new life of the research submarine Alvin

As incredible as it may seem, we have more information about the surface of other planets than we do about what lies in the depths of the oceans. Sending a man into space is undoubtedly complex, but exploring the abyss is no less, and, in many respects, the environment to be faced is even more […]

Exosuit: A “Personal Submersible” for Scientists

One physiological limitation that has always plagued divers is the one related to decompression obligations: the longer you are diving and the deeper you descend, the more inert gas will be absorbed, requiring longer and longer compression stops. To overcome this problem, commercial diving has developed the so-called “saturation” diving system. A characteristic of inert […]

Reverse Profiles and Decompression

Taking the deepest dive first is the mantra that is repeated to us by practically all diving agencies. Breaking this “rule” seems to be one of the biggest taboos in diving. But is that the case? Maybe not, or at least not always, as can be seen from the results of a conference organized by […]

Diving Risk Management

Every time we dive, our body and mind are exposed to conditions far removed from those accustomed to which we are accustomed. As human beings, we have adapted, through millions of years of evolution, to live and work on land. We need artificial supports (regulators, tanks, and dive suits) and specific preparation to survive underwater. […]